These primary sources accompanied by the reading from Ngai have provided great and tragic insight into the lives/experiences of the Braceros. Starting with accounts from Juan Loza, in his interview he speaks on his time as a Bracero and the torment he was put through. He recalls “I made 55 cents an hour, but I worked 24 hours, 7 days a week”(Loza, 2005). While this speaks volumes on just how little they were compensated for there back breaking work, it completely falls in line with Ngais accounts in his article. With in it Ngai reveals there was an “established minimum (30 cents an hour during the war and 50 cents throughout most of the 1950’s)”(Ngai, pg.140). These were not the only hardships faced within the Bracero program however as Loza in his interview recalled a time in which he tried to buy a coffee from a shop but was denied and promised physical harm because of his ethnicity. True to form his recount of that incident plays into Ngais analysis of the Bracero program and its harsh treatment of Mexicans. In Ngais article he speaks on the racial and human deprecation suffered under the Bracero program. “But as a bracero, I am only a number on a paycheck …… and I am treated like a number ……. not a man”(Ngai, pg.146). Most if not all Braceros were treated as agricultural tools and nothing less and most were provided with the bare necessities and that was it. Through Ngai’s article and the personal accounts/testimony of Juan Loza I was provided a first hand account of the morbid side of the U.S. and its agricultural world. It has provided me with a unique and innate respect for those who openly chose to join the Bracero program knowing what lied ahead of them. The fantastic promises of respect, money and freedom were merely a shiny gloss coated over the enormous pile of shit that was the Bracero program.
Kittleson, R. A. (2014). The country of football soccer and the making of modern Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press.
The country of football: soccer and the making of modern Brazil examines the cultural, racial and nationalist ties between soccer and Brazil. It starts first in the 1950’s explaining how Brazilian pride needed to be ignited and soccer was the way to do it. It looks into how the race of players in the game during the time was felt lacking in afro-brazilian representation. This need for representation and national pride is what helped to drive Brazilian soccer to great heights heading into the modern era. Allowing for great prosperity in Brazil and growing the countries notoriety as premier soccer fans, players, and culture.
Baumann, R., & Matheson, V. (2017). Mega-Events And Tourism: The Case Of Brazil. Contemporary Economic Policy, 36(2), 292–301. doi: 10.1111/coep.12270
In Mega-Events And Tourism: The Case Of Brazil, the article examines the economic growth generated in host countries of mega events like the FIFA World Cup. Specifically the article focuses on the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted in Brazil, this is because this event generated far more tourists and revenue than previous mega events. The reason for this exponential growth was attributed the successful run of the Argentine national team. From this discovery this article explores how the on field success of teams plays largely into the significance in host countries returns. It also looks into how the location of the event and the teams winning might also play a part in these bursts of revenue increase.
For my research topic I want to examine the economical significance of the growth of soccer in Latin American countries, specifically Brazil. I want examine how soccer came to be so culturally significant and almost synonymous with Latin American culture. However, my main focus will be on the economic significance that soccer has had on the growth of these countries through history. By doing this I hope to explore a subject that is near to my hearts, sports and combine it with Latin American history in order to provide both an exciting and insightful research project.
McCook, Stuart. The World Was My Garden. 1935. https://laus2020.voices.wooster.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/260/2020/01/McCook-The-World-Was-My-Garden-Tropical-Botany-and-Cosmopolitanism-in-American-Science-from-The-Colonial-Crucible-499-507.pdf
The World Was My Garden explores how the U.S. began to research tropical plants after obtaining large amounts of foreign land. It also dives into how this research was then used to greatly expand the U.S.’ agricultural knowledge and systems. Which due to its growth requires the creation of more jobs, providing many people with work. This article is a demonstration of how the U.S. used its newly acquired through imperialism to further expand not only its mass but also its intelligence. Finding new ways to grow and fix problems with its agricultural system while also remembering sweet capitalism.
Navarro-Rivera, Pablo. The Imperial Enterprise and Educational Policies in Colonial Puerto Rico. https://laus2020.voices.wooster.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/260/2020/01/Navarro-Rivera-The-Imperial-Enterprise-and-Educational-Politices-in-Coloinal-PR-from-The-Colonial-Crucible-163-174.pdf
The Imperial Enterprise and Educational Policies in Colonial Puerto Rico dives into the darker side of the U.S.’ attempt to force cultural assimilation upon children. In this article you see how Puerto Rican children in schools in both America and Puerto Rico are re-branded to be the “ideal” child. This white-washing provided these kids with new “Christian” names, haircuts, and even clothing . This exploration of the U.S.’ attempt to destroy another persons culture and heritage in order to “idealize” and conquer them is another example of its imperialistic nature.
The entirety of Bolivars letter reads and feels like a swift backhand to the United States and likens it to that of a viscous diseases destined to spread and plague others with its’s ideals. He as well on page 173 describes the U.S. as almost a bully who is envious of those around him and eager to take what they have. “I can almost foresee a general conspiracy against poor Columbia, already the target of excessive envy by all the American republics.” These sentiments do read similar to those found within Rodo’s article as well, however there are some differences. The biggest one to me is that while in Rodo does diminish and demoralize the U.S. he also does somewhat pay it homage and respect. Almost like how you would to a rival in a sport, he doesn’t love the U.S. but he can respect certain things. This can be seen on page 34 where he states “Subsequently, their history is characterized by a uniformity that, although it may lack diversity in skills and values, does possess the intellectual beauty of logic.” While this statement does still feel like a backhanded compliment it is a compliment none the less. Which is better than what Bolivar was willing to give. At the end of the day while these two sources do have some differences in their approach of describing the U.S. ,I believe that both of these articles do take pride in their dissection and disdain of North America and would rather insult it than give it credit.
Both Pike’s Wild People in Wild Lands and Strong’s The Anglo Saxons and the World’s Future elaborate on the use of stereotypes throughout history and in works to demoralize people and things we don’t understand. Both articles look at this aspect from the perspective of Anglo-Saxon’s and how their poor views of Latin Americans has perverted historical views on them as a whole. This can be seen through out the entirety of Strong’s article as his piece reads as homage to Anglo-Saxons and everything they’ve done while simultaneously backhanding Latin Americans and their struggles. Pike’s article helps to serve as a blueprint for where scholars like Strong draw their inspiration and beliefs from. At the end of the day both are summaries of how historical and cultural views of the silent minority can be tainted and smeared because of the use and enforcement of stereotypes due to a lack of awareness.
Due to football related reasons I wasn’t able to attend too many events. However, for the few events that I did get to attend I enjoyed them immensely. Not only because of the important topics and issues that they covered, but also due to the fact that we never got the chance to enjoy something like this last year. As someone who is a minority it was really amazing to just see the immense support shown across the campus.
My name is Kobe and I am a Junior majoring in Communication Studies, as well as a member of our fighting scots football team. The biggest thing I’m interested in learning about this semester is the U.S’ involvement in Cuba, or more specifically the relationship between both Cuba and the U.S. I am also really fascinated with the Cuban missile crisis because I remember my grandma telling me stories about living through those trying times.