Research Annotations

McCook, Stuart. “The World Was My Garden: Tropical Botany and Cosmopolitanism in American Science, 1898-1935.” 499-507. The University of Wisconsin Press.

Historian Stuart McCook examines American tropical botany during the period between 1898 and 1935. He argues that during this time period, American botany became increasingly focused on the tropics in a shift from a previous focus on the continental US. This reflects a broader shift from a nationalist focus to a cosmopolitan one in other areas of American life and society, a shift brought about by the rise of the American empire. McCook reviews the of American research stations in the tropics and the influence of the federal government in promoting tropical botany to make his argument.

Navarro-Rivera, Pablo. “The Imperial Enterprise and Educational Policies in Colonial Puerto Rico.” 163-174. The University of Wisconsin Press.

Historian Pablo Navarro-Rivera examines the education system set up by the United States in Puerto Rico during the early period of its rule of the island. Navarro-Rivera argues that the US pursued a policy of assimilation and Americanization, and constructed and used the Puerto Rican education system as a means to this end. As evidence, Navarro-Rivera examines the instances of Puerto Rican students being sent to the Carlisle Indian industrial School, using the accounts and letters of these students as sources.