Research Annotations

McCook, Stuart. “The World Was My Garden: Tropical Botany and Cosmopolitanism in American Science, 1898-1935.” 499-507.

McCook, a history professor who focuses on the environmental history of tropical crops and commodities, examines the process of how American botanical and agricultural research became cosmopolitan from the 19th to 20th century. McCook argues that the expansion of tropical botany and agricultural research roots from the U.S. government’s desire to controlling the newly colonized lands. While the governmental funding of research is not always abundant, the government’s efforts have indirectly created a global network for researchers. Many successful researchers mentioned by McCook build up their own companies or research organizations and promote their research focus. This work is useful for my study of the development of the U.S. tropical botany and agricultural research because it provides me with some clear background information and important organizations related to the research development. 


Navarro-Rivera, Pablo. “The Imperial Enterprise and Educational Policies in Colonial Puerto Rico.” 163-174. 

Associate Professor Navarro-Rivera examines how education is used by the United States’ government as a way to assimilate/americanize Puerto Ricans, whose lands are colonized by the U.S. He argues that teacher training programs and schools that favor American curriculum and English-learning are tactics that the U.S. government used to conquer Puerto Ricans’ cultural identities for better governance. He specifically mentions the Carlisle Indian Industrial School so as to present a better picture of how Puerto Ricans children are being treated and educated in U.S. vocational schools. This work is useful for my study of the U.S. expansionist policy because it contains both photos and quotes from Puerto Rican children who were sent to a U.S. vocational school. This would provide me with insights into the struggles and development of children under U.S. expansionism.